Originally this timeline was shamelessly lifted from the back of Great
Short Works of Fyodor Dostoevsky.
Perhaps "shamefully" would be a better description of this pilfering,
however: not due to qualms regarding plagiarism, but mostly because it seemed
rather sloppy, sparse, slightly confused, and even in places somewhat misleading---but
it did cover the key dates and events, and that is good enough. Well, no,
maybe it isn't quite. So, as opportunity has arisen, the timeline has been
edited, and expanded, corrected where possible by my unscholarly meanderings.
For an excellent, very readable, full biography, please consider Fyodor
Dostoyevsky: A Writer's Life.
Born October 30 to Mikhail Andreyevich, head physician at Mariinsky
Hospital, Moscow, and Mariya Fyodorovna, daughter of a merchant family.
Dostoevsky enters the Army Engineering College,
St Petersburg; he is described as a pensive, solitary student, prone
to fits of depression.
In an August 9 letter to his brother Dostoevsky shares that he has
read all of Shakespeare and Pascal, most of Balzac, Goethe's Faust
and shorter poems, most of Victor Hugo's novels, all (in both German
and Russian) the novels of Hoffman.
Dostoevsky's father killed apparently by his peasants, profoundly
Dostoevsky's reads to his brother his first literary efforts (now
lost), two historical dramas, Mary Stuart and Boris Gudunov.
Joins a group of socialist thinkers, is arrested. Sentenced
to death; a sentence which is altered to four years penal servitude,
the announcement being made at the last second after Dostoevsky
had been led out, with twenty others, to face firing squad.
Arrested on April 23. Imprisoned for 8 months in the Petropavlovsk
Fortress in St Petersburg. December 22 taken to be executed, but
the sentence is commuted to an 8 year term of penal servitude
in Siberia (later reduced to 4 years by Nicholas I).
Dostoevsky's own description: "Today,
December 22nd, we were all taken to Semyonovsky Square. There
the sentence of death was read out to us, we were all made to
kiss the cross, a sword was broken over our heads, and we were
told to put on our white execution shirts. Then three of us were
tied to the posts to be executed. I was the sixth, and therefore
in the second group of those to be executed. [...] Then
the retreat was sounded on the drums, those tied to the posts
were taken back, and an order from His Imperial Majesty was read
to us granting us our lives. Afterwards our sentences were read
out to us."
The children's story, "A Little Hero", written while in prison
in St Petersburg.
Between 1859 and 1861, publishes the serialised novella, "Village
it is not well received, and one critic proclaims Dostoevsky to be
finished as a writer.
March, becomes editor of Vremya ("Time"), a literary journal
(though officially his brother Mikhail was editor, Dostoevsky being
under police supervision due to his status as convict).
April, Dostoevsky plays (to good reviews) the comic postmaster Shpekin
in an amateur theatrical production of Gogol's The Inspector-General
(a charity performance with proceeds going to the Society for Aid
to Needy Writers and Scholars).
Autumn, the first two chapters of The House of the Dead are
printed in an obscure weekly, Russkii Mir ("Russian World").
In London meets famous Russian political exile and writer, Alexander
Herzen (1863); is greatly horrified by "industrial society" he observes.
Dostoevsky's journal "Time" is banned by the authorities (ostensibly
due to an article on the Polish uprising by Strakhov).
February, Dostoevsky is elected secretary of the Society for Aid
to Needy Writers and Scholars (aka the Literary Fund).
"Winter Notes on Summer Impressions." Mariya Dmitriyevna seriously
ill. Dostoevsky again travels abroad, and forms a liaison with Appollinariya
Dostoevsky and brother Mikhail plan to launch a new monthly to be
called Pravda ("Truth"), but the authorities consider the name
too provocative, the new journal is entitled Epokha ("Epoch"):
it lasts only a year and ends in failure.
Dostoevsky stops gambling. A son, Fyodor, born in July in St Petersburg.
Becomes editor of The Citizen, but resigns in 1874. 
A Raw Youth. At Ems for a cure for emphysema, winters in
Staraya Russa. 
A son, Aleksey, born. At Ems again for a cure. 
"The Peasant Marey" published in Dostoevsky's A Writer's
November, "A Gentle Creature" published in Dostoevsky's A
Writer's Diary (the idea came from a St Petersburg. newspaper
story he had read in which a young desperate girl apparently threw
herself to her death while clasping an icon in her hands).
[From 1876] The Diary of a Writer, published in instalments
in The Citizen. "A Gentle Creature," "The Dream of a Ridiculous
April, "The Dream of a Ridiculous Man" published in Dostoevsky's
A Writer's Diary.
Works on The Brothers Karamazov. His second son dies.
The Brothers Karamazov finished. Dostoevsky returns to Moscow
to speak at an unveiling of a monument to Pushkin, and is wildly acclaimed.
Returns to Staraya Russa. Works on January instalment of The Diary
of a Writer.
January 28: Dostoevsky bids farewell this planet, for now.
February 9: Dostoevsky bids farewell this planet (with a burst blood
vessel in his lungs, aggravated by an attack of epilepsy).